ENICAR terminology explained

 

Below some explanations of engravings and printings that can be found on ENICAR wrist watches.

Incabloc

The Incabloc shock protection system is the trade name for a spring-loaded mounting system for the jewel bearings that support the balance wheel in a mechanical watch, to protect the wheel's delicate pivots from damage in the event of physical shock, such as if the watch is dropped. It was invented in 1934 by Swiss engineers Georges Braunschweig and Fritz Marti at Universal Escapements, Ltd, La Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland. It is currently manufactured by Incabloc, S.A. Similar systems are ETA's Etachoc, Kif, Seiko's Diashock, and Citizen's Parashock.

 

Anti-magnetic

Anti-magnetic (non-magnetic) watches are those that are able to run with minimal deviation when exposed to a certain magnetic field. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) issued a standard for magnetic resistant watches, which many countries have adopted.

The international standard ISO 764 Horology—Magnetic resistant watches defines the resistance of watches to magnetic fields. According to ISO 764 or its equivalent DIN 8309 (Deutsche Industrie Norm - German Industry Norm) a watch must resist exposition to a direct current magnetic field of 4,800 A/m (Ampere per meter). The watch must keep its accuracy to +/- 30 seconds/day as measured before the test in order to be acknowledged as a magnetic resistant watch. Annex A of ISO 764 deals with watches designated as magnetic resistant with an additional indication of intensity of a magnetic field exceeding 4,800 A/m.

There are two ways of building an anti-magnetic watch:

A. The first way consists in using different alloys, capable of withstanding magnetic fields. These alloys include Invar (iron - nickel - carbon - chromium alloy), Glucydur (beryllium - bronze alloy), Nivarox (iron - nickel - chromium - titanium - beryllium alloy) and Elinvar - an alloy similar to Invar, though less resistant to magnetism and more resistant to thermal influence. These alloys are preferred by different watchmakers due to their differing properties. Since the 1950s, Nivarox and Glucydur were extensively used by watchmakers. In the 1960s, almost all Swiss watches had Glucydur balance and Nivarox hairsprings. The anchors, escape wheels and other watch mechanisms were also made of non-magnetic metals or alloys.

B. Another way of making a watch non-magnetic is to house the entire movement into a case made of a highly conductive (permeable) material. The movement is covered by an additional soft-iron clasp to prevent the forming of magnetic fields inside the watch itself.

The first recorded experiments in anti-magnetic watch-making are in 1846. The first anti-magnetic pocket watch was assembled by Vacheron Constantin in 1915. Later, in 1929, Tissot assembled the first ever non-magnetic wristwatch.

 

Jewels = Ruby

Ruby is used as bearings for many moving parts in a watch. In some ENICAR watches up to 33 rubies were/are used. It is a myth to think that the more rubies a watch has the better.
A ruby is a pink to blood-red coloured gemstone, a variety of the mineral corundum (aluminium oxide). The red colour is caused mainly by the presence of the element chromium. Its name comes from ‘ruber’, Latin for red. Other varieties of gem-quality corundum are called sapphires. The ruby is considered one of the four precious stones, together with the sapphire, the emerald, and the diamond. Rubies have a hardness of 9.0 on the Mohs scale of mineral hardness. Among the natural gems only moissonite and diamond are harder, with diamond having a Mohs hardness of 10.0 and moissonite falling somewhere in between corundum (ruby) and diamond in hardness.
In 1837 Gaudin made the first synthetic rubies by fusing potash alum at a high temperature with a little chromium as a pigment. In 1847 Ebelmen made white sapphire by fusing alumina in boric acid.

Ultrasonic


Many people think that this term has to do with high speed. In fact it does! But not like moving from A to B with high speed. It means cleaning with high frequencies. Ultrasonic cleaning uses high frequency sound waves (20-400 kHz) to agitate in a liquid (sometimes ordinary tap water). Cavitation bubbles induced by the agitation act on contaminants adhering to substrates like metals, plastics, glass, rubber, and ceramics. This action also penetrates blind holes, cracks, and recesses. The intention is to thoroughly remove all traces of contamination tightly adhering or embedded onto solid surfaces. Water or other solvents can be used, depending on the type of contamination and the work piece. Contaminants can include dust, dirt, oil, pigments, grease, polishing compounds, flux agents, fingerprints, soot wax and mold release agents, biological soil like blood, and so on. Ultrasonic cleaning can be used for a wide range of work piece shapes, sizes and materials, and may not require the part to be disassembled prior to cleaning.
Many scientists are claiming the discovery of ultrasonic cleaning. John Wild (1914-2009) a British surgeon, who emigrated to the USA after W.W. II, is considered to be the father of modern ultrasonic technology. In 1950's ultrasonic cleaning was introduced in industry.